Struct godot::builtin::Vector3

#[repr(C)]
pub struct Vector3 { pub x: f32, pub y: f32, pub z: f32, }
Expand description

Vector used for 3D math using floating point coordinates.

3-element structure that can be used to represent positions in 3D space or any other triple of numeric values.

It uses floating-point coordinates of 32-bit precision, unlike the engine’s float type which is always 64-bit. The engine can be compiled with the option precision=double to use 64-bit vectors; use the gdext library with the double-precision feature in that case.

See Vector3i for its integer counterpart.

Fields§

§x: f32

The vector’s X component.

§y: f32

The vector’s Y component.

§z: f32

The vector’s Z component.

Implementations§

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impl Vector3

pub const ZERO: Vector3 = _

Zero vector, a vector with all components set to 0.

pub const ONE: Vector3 = _

One vector, a vector with all components set to 1.

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impl Vector3

pub const INF: Vector3 = _

Infinity vector, a vector with all components set to real::INFINITY.

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impl Vector3

pub const LEFT: Vector3 = _

Unit vector in -X direction. Can be interpreted as left in an untransformed 3D world.

pub const RIGHT: Vector3 = _

Unit vector in +X direction. Can be interpreted as right in an untransformed 3D world.

pub const UP: Vector3 = _

Unit vector in +Y direction. Typically interpreted as up in a 3D world.

pub const DOWN: Vector3 = _

Unit vector in -Y direction. Typically interpreted as down in a 3D world.

pub const FORWARD: Vector3 = _

Unit vector in -Z direction. Can be interpreted as “into the screen” in an untransformed 3D world.

pub const BACK: Vector3 = _

Unit vector in +Z direction. Can be interpreted as “out of the screen” in an untransformed 3D world.

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impl Vector3

pub const fn new(x: f32, y: f32, z: f32) -> Vector3

Returns a vector with the given components.

pub const fn splat(v: f32) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with all components set to v.

pub fn abs(self) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with all components in absolute values (i.e. positive or zero).

pub fn clamp(self, min: Vector3, max: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with all components clamped between the components of min and max.

§Panics

If min > max, min is NaN, or max is NaN.

pub fn length(self) -> f32

Returns the length (magnitude) of this vector.

pub fn length_squared(self) -> f32

Squared length (squared magnitude) of this vector.

Runs faster than Self::length, so prefer it if you need to compare vectors or need the squared distance for some formula.

pub fn coord_min(self, other: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector containing the minimum of the two vectors, component-wise.

pub fn coord_max(self, other: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector containing the maximum of the two vectors, component-wise.

pub fn sign(self) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with each component set to 1 if it’s positive, -1 if it’s negative, and 0 if it’s zero.

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impl Vector3

pub fn ceil(self) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with all components rounded up (towards positive infinity).

pub fn cubic_interpolate( self, b: Vector3, pre_a: Vector3, post_b: Vector3, weight: f32, ) -> Vector3

Performs a cubic interpolation between this vector and b using pre_a and post_b as handles, and returns the result at position weight.

weight is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0, representing the amount of interpolation.

pub fn cubic_interpolate_in_time( self, b: Vector3, pre_a: Vector3, post_b: Vector3, weight: f32, b_t: f32, pre_a_t: f32, post_b_t: f32, ) -> Vector3

Performs a cubic interpolation between this vector and b using pre_a and post_b as handles, and returns the result at position weight.

weight is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0, representing the amount of interpolation. It can perform smoother interpolation than Self::cubic_interpolate by the time values.

pub fn try_direction_to(self, to: Vector3) -> Option<Vector3>

Returns the normalized vector pointing from this vector to to or None, if self and to are equal.

This is equivalent to using (b - a).try_normalized(). See also direction_to().

pub fn direction_to(self, to: Vector3) -> Vector3

⚠️ Returns the normalized vector pointing from this vector to to.

This is equivalent to using (b - a).normalized(). See also try_direction_to().

§Panics

If self and to are equal.

pub fn distance_squared_to(self, to: Vector3) -> f32

Returns the squared distance between this vector and to.

This method runs faster than Self::distance_to, so prefer it if you need to compare vectors or need the squared distance for some formula.

pub fn distance_to(self, to: Vector3) -> f32

Returns the distance between this vector and to.

pub fn dot(self, with: Vector3) -> f32

Returns the dot product of this vector and with.

pub fn floor(self) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with all components rounded down (towards negative infinity).

pub fn is_finite(self) -> bool

Returns true if each component of this vector is finite.

pub fn is_normalized(self) -> bool

Returns true if the vector is normalized, i.e. its length is approximately equal to 1.

pub fn is_zero_approx(self) -> bool

Returns true if this vector’s values are approximately zero.

This method is faster than using approx_eq() with one value as a zero vector.

pub fn lerp(self, other: Vector3, weight: f32) -> Vector3

Returns the result of the linear interpolation between this vector and to by amount weight.

weight is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0, representing the amount of interpolation.

pub fn try_normalized(self) -> Option<Vector3>

Returns the vector scaled to unit length or None, if called on a zero vector.

Computes self / self.length(). See also normalized() and is_normalized().

pub fn normalized(self) -> Vector3

⚠️ Returns the vector scaled to unit length.

Computes self / self.length(). See also try_normalized() and is_normalized().

§Panics

If called on a zero vector.

pub fn normalized_or_zero(self) -> Vector3

Returns the vector scaled to unit length or Self::ZERO, if called on a zero vector.

Computes self / self.length(). See also try_normalized() and is_normalized().

pub fn posmod(self, pmod: f32) -> Vector3

Returns a vector composed of the FloatExt::fposmod of this vector’s components and pmod.

pub fn posmodv(self, modv: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a vector composed of the FloatExt::fposmod of this vector’s components and modv’s components.

pub fn round(self) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector with all components rounded to the nearest integer, with halfway cases rounded away from zero.

pub fn snapped(self, step: Vector3) -> Vector3

A new vector with each component snapped to the closest multiple of the corresponding component in step.

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impl Vector3

pub fn max_axis(self) -> Option<Vector3Axis>

Returns the axis of the vector’s highest value. See Vector3Axis enum. If all components are equal, this method returns None.

To mimic Godot’s behavior, unwrap this function’s result with unwrap_or(Vector3Axis::X).

pub fn min_axis(self) -> Option<Vector3Axis>

Returns the axis of the vector’s lowest value. See Vector3Axis enum. If all components are equal, this method returns None.

To mimic Godot’s behavior, unwrap this function’s result with unwrap_or(Vector3Axis::Z).

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impl Vector3

pub fn angle_to(self, to: Vector3) -> f32

Returns the angle to the given vector, in radians.

pub fn bezier_derivative( self, control_1: Vector3, control_2: Vector3, end: Vector3, t: f32, ) -> Vector3

Returns the derivative at the given t on the Bézier curve defined by this vector and the given control_1, control_2, and end points.

pub fn bezier_interpolate( self, control_1: Vector3, control_2: Vector3, end: Vector3, t: f32, ) -> Vector3

Returns the point at the given t on the Bézier curve defined by this vector and the given control_1, control_2, and end points.

pub fn bounce(self, n: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector “bounced off” from a plane defined by the given normal.

§Panics

If n is not normalized.

pub fn limit_length(self, length: Option<f32>) -> Vector3

Returns the vector with a maximum length by limiting its length to length.

pub fn move_toward(self, to: Vector3, delta: f32) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector moved toward to by the fixed delta amount. Will not go past the final value.

pub fn project(self, b: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns the result of projecting the vector onto the given vector b.

pub fn reflect(self, n: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns the result of reflecting the vector defined by the given direction vector n.

§Panics

If n is not normalized.

pub fn slide(self, n: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns a new vector slid along a plane defined by the given normal.

§Panics

If n is not normalized.

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impl Vector3

pub fn recip(self) -> Vector3

Returns the reciprocal (inverse) of the vector. This is the same as 1.0/n for each component.

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impl Vector3

pub const MODEL_LEFT: Vector3 = _

Unit vector pointing towards the left side of imported 3D assets.

pub const MODEL_RIGHT: Vector3 = _

Unit vector pointing towards the right side of imported 3D assets.

pub const MODEL_TOP: Vector3 = _

Unit vector pointing towards the top side (up) of imported 3D assets.

pub const MODEL_BOTTOM: Vector3 = _

Unit vector pointing towards the bottom side (down) of imported 3D assets.

pub const MODEL_FRONT: Vector3 = _

Unit vector pointing towards the front side (facing forward) of imported 3D assets.

pub const MODEL_REAR: Vector3 = _

Unit vector pointing towards the rear side (back) of imported 3D assets.

pub const fn from_vector3i(v: Vector3i) -> Vector3

Constructs a new Vector3 from a Vector3i.

pub fn cross(self, with: Vector3) -> Vector3

Returns the cross product of this vector and with.

This returns a vector perpendicular to both this and with, which would be the normal vector of the plane defined by the two vectors. As there are two such vectors, in opposite directions, this method returns the vector defined by a right-handed coordinate system. If the two vectors are parallel this returns an empty vector, making it useful for testing if two vectors are parallel.

pub fn octahedron_decode(uv: Vector2) -> Vector3

Returns the Vector3 from an octahedral-compressed form created using Vector3::octahedron_encode (stored as a Vector2).

pub fn octahedron_encode(self) -> Vector2

Returns the octahedral-encoded (oct32) form of this Vector3 as a Vector2.

Since a Vector2 occupies 1/3 less memory compared to Vector3, this form of compression can be used to pass greater amounts of Vector3::normalized Vector3s without increasing storage or memory requirements. See also Vector3::octahedron_decode.

Note: Octahedral compression is lossy, although visual differences are rarely perceptible in real world scenarios.

§Panics

If vector is not normalized.

pub fn outer(self, with: Vector3) -> Basis

Returns the outer product with with.

pub fn rotated(self, axis: Vector3, angle: f32) -> Vector3

Returns this vector rotated around axis by angle radians. axis must be normalized.

§Panics

If axis is not normalized.

pub fn signed_angle_to(self, to: Vector3, axis: Vector3) -> f32

Returns the signed angle to the given vector, in radians. The sign of the angle is positive in a counter-clockwise direction and negative in a clockwise direction when viewed from the side specified by the axis.

pub fn slerp(self, to: Vector3, weight: f32) -> Vector3

Returns the spherical linear interpolation between the vector and to by the weight amount.

The variable weight is representing the amount of interpolation, which is on the range of 0.0 to 1.0.

Length is also interpolated in the case that the input vectors have different lengths. If both input vectors have zero length or are collinear to each other, the method instead behaves like Vector3::lerp.

Trait Implementations§

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impl Add for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the + operator.
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fn add(self, rhs: Vector3) -> <Vector3 as Add>::Output

Performs the + operation. Read more
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impl AddAssign for Vector3

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fn add_assign(&mut self, rhs: Vector3)

Performs the += operation. Read more
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impl ApproxEq for Vector3

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fn approx_eq(&self, other: &Vector3) -> bool

Returns true if this vector and to are approximately equal.

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impl Clone for Vector3

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fn clone(&self) -> Vector3

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl Debug for Vector3

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl Default for Vector3

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fn default() -> Vector3

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
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impl Display for Vector3

Formats the vector like Godot: (x, y, z).

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl Div<f32> for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the / operator.
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fn div(self, rhs: f32) -> <Vector3 as Div<f32>>::Output

Performs the / operation. Read more
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impl Div for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the / operator.
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fn div(self, rhs: Vector3) -> <Vector3 as Div>::Output

Performs the / operation. Read more
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impl DivAssign<f32> for Vector3

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fn div_assign(&mut self, rhs: f32)

Performs the /= operation. Read more
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impl DivAssign for Vector3

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fn div_assign(&mut self, rhs: Vector3)

Performs the /= operation. Read more
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impl Export for Vector3

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fn default_export_info() -> PropertyHintInfo

The export info to use for an exported field of this type, if no other export info is specified.
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impl Extend<Vector3> for PackedVector3Array

Extends aPackedVector3Array with the contents of an iterator

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fn extend<I>(&mut self, iter: I)
where I: IntoIterator<Item = Vector3>,

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more
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fn extend_one(&mut self, item: A)

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)
Extends a collection with exactly one element.
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fn extend_reserve(&mut self, additional: usize)

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)
Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more
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impl FromGodot for Vector3

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fn try_from_godot( via: <Vector3 as GodotConvert>::Via, ) -> Result<Vector3, ConvertError>

Converts the Godot representation to this type, returning Err on failure.
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fn from_godot(via: Self::Via) -> Self

⚠️ Converts the Godot representation to this type. Read more
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fn try_from_variant(variant: &Variant) -> Result<Self, ConvertError>

Performs the conversion from a Variant, returning Err on failure.
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fn from_variant(variant: &Variant) -> Self

⚠️ Performs the conversion from a Variant. Read more
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impl FromIterator<Vector3> for PackedVector3Array

Creates a PackedVector3Array from an iterator.

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fn from_iter<I>(iter: I) -> PackedVector3Array
where I: IntoIterator<Item = Vector3>,

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more
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impl GodotConvert for Vector3

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type Via = Vector3

The type through which Self is represented in Godot.
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impl Index<Vector3Axis> for Vector3

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type Output = f32

The returned type after indexing.
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fn index(&self, axis: Vector3Axis) -> &f32

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more
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impl IndexMut<Vector3Axis> for Vector3

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fn index_mut(&mut self, axis: Vector3Axis) -> &mut f32

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more
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impl Mul<Vector3> for Basis

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, rhs: Vector3) -> <Basis as Mul<Vector3>>::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl Mul<Vector3> for Transform3D

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, rhs: Vector3) -> <Transform3D as Mul<Vector3>>::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl Mul<f32> for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, rhs: f32) -> <Vector3 as Mul<f32>>::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl Mul for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the * operator.
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fn mul(self, rhs: Vector3) -> <Vector3 as Mul>::Output

Performs the * operation. Read more
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impl MulAssign<f32> for Vector3

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fn mul_assign(&mut self, rhs: f32)

Performs the *= operation. Read more
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impl MulAssign for Vector3

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fn mul_assign(&mut self, rhs: Vector3)

Performs the *= operation. Read more
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impl Neg for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn neg(self) -> <Vector3 as Neg>::Output

Performs the unary - operation. Read more
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impl PartialEq for Vector3

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fn eq(&self, other: &Vector3) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<'a> Product<&'a Vector3> for Vector3

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fn product<I>(iter: I) -> Vector3
where I: Iterator<Item = &'a Vector3>,

Element-wise product of all vectors in the iterator.

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impl Product for Vector3

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fn product<I>(iter: I) -> Vector3
where I: Iterator<Item = Vector3>,

Element-wise product of all vectors in the iterator.

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impl Sub for Vector3

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type Output = Vector3

The resulting type after applying the - operator.
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fn sub(self, rhs: Vector3) -> <Vector3 as Sub>::Output

Performs the - operation. Read more
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impl SubAssign for Vector3

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fn sub_assign(&mut self, rhs: Vector3)

Performs the -= operation. Read more
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impl<'a> Sum<&'a Vector3> for Vector3

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fn sum<I>(iter: I) -> Vector3
where I: Iterator<Item = &'a Vector3>,

Element-wise sum of all vectors in the iterator.

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impl Sum for Vector3

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fn sum<I>(iter: I) -> Vector3
where I: Iterator<Item = Vector3>,

Element-wise sum of all vectors in the iterator.

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impl ToGodot for Vector3

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fn to_godot(&self) -> <Vector3 as GodotConvert>::Via

Converts this type to the Godot type by reference, usually by cloning.
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fn into_godot(self) -> <Vector3 as GodotConvert>::Via

Converts this type to the Godot type. Read more
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fn to_variant(&self) -> Variant

Converts this type to a Variant.
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impl TypeStringHint for Vector3

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fn type_string() -> String

Returns the representation of this type as a type string. Read more
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impl Var for Vector3

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impl ArrayElement for Vector3

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impl Copy for Vector3

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impl GodotType for Vector3

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impl StructuralPartialEq for Vector3

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Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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unsafe fn clone_to_uninit(&self, dst: *mut T)

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default unsafe fn clone_to_uninit(&self, dst: *mut T)

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Returns the argument unchanged.

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Calls U::from(self).

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Performs the conversion.
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Performs the conversion.